Third, the issue of uniform financial resources needs to be addressed to help developing countries reduce the burden of climate change. The Green Climate Fund is nowhere nearthest as expected. With U.S. support withdrawn, the future of the CWG is bleak. It is essential to reach agreement on “new and additional” financial resources. While most countries are aware that the financial flow will be, not necessarily through the budgetary route, the insistence that this electricity be subject to the MRV, just like emissions. A compromise on this issue with those of the NDC and transparency is inevitable: a movement for an agreement takes place in Katowice. Hansen and Lebedeff`s (1987) graph shows almost the same high temperature peak in the 1930s and 1940s as the oldest Graph of the National Academy of Sciences, published in 1975 (NAS 1975). In the new GISS-2008 and GISS-2017 temperature datasets from the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS, 2008; GISS, 2017), this summit has all but disappeared.
The decades from 1910 to 1940 in GISS-2017 were 0.05 to 0.1 degrees Celsius colder than in GISS-2008. Satellite temperature measurements (UAH, 2017) have been virtually non-existent since 2000. The UAH temperature data begin in 1979 and were compensated at the same level as the GISS-2017 in 1979. The continued warming of GISS-2017 in the 2010s appears to be about 0.2oC above the UAH temperature. In the debate on the possibilities offered by the Paris Agreement, many challenges arose in its implementation. The Paris Agreement is not a legally binding instrument as a whole (see this blog by Dean Bialek on aspects that are binding and those that are not) and the parties therefore have only limited responsibility in case of non-compliance with their obligations. As a result, developed countries may not provide adequate resources to implement mitigation and adaptation measures to ensure climate-resilient development. This would be a major challenge for developing countries to implement national mitigation and adaptation measures to address the negative effects of climate change. Ollila, A. (2019), “Challenging the scientific basis of the Paris climate agreement,” International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, Vol. doi.org/10.1108/IJCCSM-05-2017-0107 Two new studies published in AGU Geophysical Research Letters and Earth`s Future now show that some of the goals set out in the agreement could be difficult to achieve without great sacrifice.
COP21 does not define the scientific basis of the agreement for the heating effects of anthropogenic emissions, but refers to a scenario. The IPCC publication “Summary for Policymakers: Mitigation of Climate Change” contributes to the UNFCCC`s objectives and has clarified this scenario. The precise specification of the IPCC (IPCC, 2014) is that compliance with the agreement is not sufficiently taken into account to ensure effective and effective implementation. Its non-punishable nature will be a serious factor in achieving the goal of limiting the temperature increase to 1.5 degrees. The parties are expected to reach, by consensus, a new agreement on a fully legally binding framework, with mechanisms for implementation for measures to combat climate change before 2020 and after 2020. In December 2015, governments of more than 190 nations met in Paris with immense enthusiasm and expectations for a global agreement to combat climate change. The Paris Agreement, seen as an important milestone in the history of international climate change negotiations, succeeded in creating a revolutionary agreement between the parties to deal with the negative effects of climate change.